What is Debian OS?
Debian OS Established by Ian Murdock in 1993, Debian stands as one of the most venerable and well-known Linux distributions. It is the basis for many other Linux distributions, such as Ubuntu, Mint, and Kali Linux, because of its exceptional stability and security.
Debian operating system, also known as Debian GNU / Linux, is one of the most stable Linux distributions available for free.
Debian was first introduced on August 16, 1993, by Ian Murdock; This distribution has been published by many programmers to produce a non-commercial version.
Debian is free and open source and user friendly, based on Unix system. Debian boasts a massive repository of free software and developed by programmers community.
Similar to RHEL, debian is parent distribution and many operating systems such as ubuntu, linux mint, kali linux are based on it. This operating systems are called Debian-based distributions.
Debian distributions are also widely used in servers and desktops. Debian emphasizes stability, and the largest and most comprehensive software source belongs to this family.
The package management system is one the best features of Debian. Administrators can install, update and manage software with this system. The package manager for Debian is dpkg.
The Debian project also commits itself to publish detailed updates on operating system security issues in addition to publishing security updates.
Debian is offered in three main channels, test(developing), stable and unstable; Stable channels have the highest security and lowest bugs possible and have regular updates.
Debian has various versions and the latest versions are Debian 10 known as Buster, Debian 11 known as Bullseye and Debian 12 known as Bookworm.
In 1993, on August 16, Ian Murdock introduced debian. The goal of this new concept was non-commercial, free distribution and in line with the principles of the GNU and Linux projects.
Many people thought that the Debian project which several programmers presented, would fail. But contrary to expectations, Debian thrived.
This distribution in less than 10 years became known as the most unique Linux distribution. so far more than 120 distributions based on it have been released, and there are more than 59,000 software packages for debian.
The founder of the free software movement, Richard Stallman, due to disagreed with some of Debian’s explanations and designed Virtual Richard M. Stallman software. This software reviewed debian packages and reported non-free software.
The name of Debian is a combination of the first name of the founder and his ex-wife (Debra Lynn) (Debra Lynn + Ian Murdock).
Reasons for Linux Debian Success
- Debian operating system has a high degree of flexibility, and also its open-source has made it possible to change its source code, so 120 different models were created based on Debian.
- Another reason for its success is the existence of a large community of experts and programmers to support Debian, who volunteers to error testing and develop it.
- another thing; There are clear and precise instructions for quality control, trial and error, and troubleshooting for a more user-friendly Debian operating system environment.
Debian use cases
Debian can be installed and run on most processors with different architectures of 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Intel, AMD, ARM, and mainframe eServer computers from the IBM z series.
Debian runs the GNOME desktop environment and includes applications such as OpenOffice.org, the Evolution email system, Iceweasel which is a modified version of Firefox, music and video players, photo viewers, text editors, and PDF viewers.
Debian has powerful graphical environment and convenient command line terminal for the user.
Advantages of Debian OS
Stability: All Debian packages are tested before being included in its repositories. Debian also has a slower release cycle than other distributions, and each version is supported for a long time. So it guarantees a high level of stability.
Security: Debian regularly provides security updates for its open source software to quickly fix software security bugs and prevent possible vulnerabilities.
An established linux distribution: Debian is one of the oldest and established Linux distributions that many popular distributions such as Ubuntu are based on Debian.
Server compatibility: You can use the original version of Debian on server without needing a special version or modification. It is a great choice for a Linux VPS.
Open source: being open source is an advantage that users can apply any changes to the operating system.
Strong support: Debian is not just a Linux operating system, this software is produced by hundreds of volunteers worldwide. You can still be part of the Debian community even if you are not a programmer.
Debian is based on community and consensus. Due to the wide range of users, Debian has become a common practice in Linux software. You can find all kinds of software you need in Debian.
Disadvantages of Debian OS
- Delay in updating stable versions (Debian provides stable versions every 1-3 years)
- Having a slow release cycle and outdated software
- The complexity of the installation and configuration process and need for more technical knowledge
- Don’t support Delta updates such as Delta RPM
Types of Debian versions
Debian has been introduced in 3 versions, which we will explain in the following.
The stable version is the latest official version of Debian that has high stability and security. it is incompatible with new software because of Debian’s slow release cycle (1-3 years).
So, if you are looking for the latest and greatest software packages, the stable version is not the best choice.
This version is expanding its software packages and waiting in line for stability.
The Testing version is for error testing, providing the latest software enhancements. Also, the Testing version has more updates compared to the stable version.
But its disadvantage is that it can not receive security packages at the right time; The latest beta version of Debian is Bullseye.
The Debian OS development process is complete in unstable or sid version, and this is an experimental version that has been developed.
In testing version users give feedback, but unstable version of Debian allows developers to actively submit code and influence the success of this testing version.
So we recommend this version for developers, and it’s unsuitable and unreliable for daily use.
Debian operating system features
as you get to know with Debian operating system, it is better to know its important features.
- Quality Control
- Very high software diversity
- Support for different architectures and processors
- High stability and security
- Having different versions in terms of an operating system, such as live versions or installable versions
- Utilizing the GNU core
- including more than 29,000 applications
- being Free
- Being graphic and having an attractive environment for the user
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GNU Hurd kernel called Debian GNU / HUurd
kFreeBSD kernel called Debian GNU / kFreeBSD
NetBSD kernel called Debian GNU / NetBSD
It can also be installed and used on all old and new hardware, servers, and home computers, embedded with Linux. Debian is released on a wide range of platforms such as i386 (x86), amd64 (x86-64), PowerPC, SPARC, DEC Alpha ARM, MIPS, HPPA, S390, and IA-64.
Debian is a secure and stable Linux-based operating system that Debian developers provide security updates for all packages whenever possible, and it is an entirely free and open-source operating system; Use, change, and distribution of Debian is free for everyone.
Debian is known for its easy and smooth upgrades in the release cycle and is the foundation of other distributions like Ubuntu; It also supports most hardware.
Debian has a large community that volunteers worldwide to develop and solve its problems. Debian can also be installed live and can be installed using a CD-ROM, USB, or even an automatic network installation tool. Debian performs well in professional environments with its reliability, high security, and long-term support through specialists.
Many of the most popular Linux distributions, such as Ubuntu, Knoppix, PureOS, SteamOS, Tails, Openbox, SolydXK, and Tanglu choose Debian as the basis for their software.
Yes, Debian OS is one of the most popular operating systems used on the server; Of course, note that the server version and the desktop version are different, and you must use the Debian Linux server version.
Debian is one of the oldest and most widely used free Linux distributions, from which many other Linux distributions are derived.
This operating system can be viewed on servers and PCs, Specially the most used of this distribution is the Linux VPS.
Debian has allowed programmers to change the source of a Linux distribution and play a role in providing a new version.
The Important features of debian are stability, excellent quality control, Including more than 59,000 software packages, and architecture support for more processors than other Linux distributions. Debian is a perfect choice for novice to professional Linux users.